International tournaments can have a tremendous impact on the game in a variety of ways, with the FIFA World Cup holding a significant influence in this regard. The 1990 edition of the competition in Italy reserves a special place in football history, with changes to the rules cementing a massive legacy.
The Lasting Impact of the 1990 FIFA World Cup
Widely criticised for being one of the most negative and unentertaining World Cups in memory, the fixtures featured tactics that did not exactly grab the eye. Italia ’90 produced an average of 2.21 goals per match, still the lowest in World Cup history.
Each semi-final went to penalties, with a late penalty-kick in the final bringing West Germany the trophy over Argentina at the Stadio Olimpico.
But, in many ways, the 1990 World Cup is remembered for bringing about two rule changes that made a major impact in world football. Although the tournament was plagued by negative tactics (particularly in the group stage), the back-pass rule and making victories worth three points placed an emphasis on attacking play.
Matches throughout the tournament saw sides hold possession for large portions, perfectly content to hold whatever advantage was available. Due to this approach, the back-pass rule was put into effect in 1992 to revive attacking play.
With defenders able to simply send the ball back to the goalkeeper’s waiting hands, the opposition was often left completely helpless. The addition of the law made this philosophy much more difficult to utilise in future competitions, as well as at the club level.
Football is almost always a battle between playing with flair and earning results, but the back-pass rule was a way of keeping that struggle balanced.
Three points for a win
Already used in many European leagues at the time, Italia ’90 was the final evidence needed for FIFA to see that three points for a victory was a crucial part of a World Cup competition.
With little incentive to push for a win and one extra point, the group stage saw many nations happily take a point in several matches. Argentina, for example, made it all the way to the final scoring only five goals throughout the entire tournament.
Thanks to the added incentive for points in the group stage moving forward, the introduction of this rule at the 1994 World Cup helped create more exciting (and enjoyable) early fixtures.
Echoes of away goals in the European Cup
Both additions were brought about with the desire to see more attacking and entertaining play, similar to the reasoning behind the away-goal rule introduced for the European Cup in the late 1960’s.
Clubs were timid in away matches, aiming to defeat the opposition in the home leg. Negative tactics began to take control, with the new stipulations adding motivation for proactive philosophies. Scouting other clubs around Europe was a bit different in those decades, perhaps also leading to a more conservative approach in a squad’s travels.
The game can be one of frustration, especially for passionate fans and supporters. But after the 1990 FIFA World Cup, international football was never quite the same again.